1. The Economics of Imperfect Competition, Robinson. (1938)
  2. Imperfect competition in labour markets, Manning (2011), Monopsony in online labour markets, Dube et al. (2018)
  3. Monopsony in labour markets: a meta-analysis, Sokolova and Sorensen. (2018)
  4. Labour market concentration, Azar et al. (2017)
  5. Monopsony in the UK, Abel et al. (2018); Strong employers and weak employees, Benmelech et al. (2018)
  6. Rent sharing and inclusive growth, Bell et al. (2019)
  7. Although evidence is only available for the UK and the US, it seems likely that similar trends would be observed in other labour markets.
  8. Non-competes in the US labour force, Starr et al. (2019)
  9. Mobility constraint externalities, Starr et al. (2018)
  10. See the United States, Department of Justice for further details. (2010)
  11. A little-known California law is Silicon Valley’s secret weapon, Timothy B Lee, VOX. (2017)
  12. The elasticity of labour supply over the business cycle, Depew and Sorenson (2013); Do employers have more monopsony power in slack labour markets? Hirsch. (2018)
  13. The fissured workplace, Weil. (2014)
  14. Rise of domestic outsourcing and the evolution of the German wage, Goldschmidt and Schmieder (2017); Domestic outsourcing in the United States, Dorn et al. (2018)
  15. Firming up inequality, Song et al. (2018); Wage, Inequality and firm growth, Mueller, Ouimet and Simintzi. (2017)
  16. The Fall of the Labor Share and the Rise of Superstar Firms, Autor et al. (2017)
  17. A recent study suggests that these firms may not be superstars but rather fading stars, whose productivity has fallen in recent years. This would imply exploitation of market power rather than superior productivity. Fading Stars, Guitierrez and Phillipon. (2019)
  18. Superstars: The dynamics of firms, sectors, and cities leading the global economy, McKinsey Global Institute. (2018)
  19. Note that labour share is labour’s total share of compensation in total Gross Value Added; it therefore accounts for both wage and employment changes
  20. Artificial Intelligence, Automation and Work, Acemoglu and Restrepo (2018)
  21. The A.I. Paradox. How robots will make work more human, Oxford Economics (2017)
  22. Antitrust remedies for labor market power, Naidu, Posner and Weyl (2018)
  23. From hereon, all stated 2019 HGSI scores omit Romania to facilitate comparisons with 2018.
  24. The aggregate matching function and job search from employment and out of the labour force, Sedlacek (2016)
  25. Underemployment in the US and Europe, Bell and Blanchflower (2019); More Slack than Meets the Eye? Recent Wage Dynamics in Advanced Economies, IMF (2018)
  26. A positive figure indicates that underemployment is greater than unemployment, i.e. there are employees who are working less than the hours they would optimally. A negative figure implies that individuals within work would like to reduce their hours.
  27. The gender pay gap varies greatly by occupation, Wrohlich (2017); World employment social outlook, ILO (2018)
  28. This is based on a weighted average for all markets in which Hays operates. Weighting is by share of employment.
  29. Gender, Technology and the Future of Work, Brussevich et al. IMF (2018)
  30. Will robots really steal our jobs? Hawksworth, Gillham and Berriman (2018)
  31. The Global Gender Gap Report 2018, World Economic Forum (2018)
  32. Note that the impact of globalisation on men and women who work in manufacturing does not differ significantly. It is the fact that men are more likely to work in manufacturing which matters.
  33. When work disappears: manufacturing decline and the falling marriage-market value of young men, Autor et al. (2018)
  34. Gender Equality and Trade Policy, Womenwatch (2010)
  35. Alternative measures of offshorability: A survey approach, Blinder (2009). This paper estimates that almost 20% of US jobs might be offshored within the next 20 years.
  36. David Autor (2019) has recently shown how in America, this hollowing out of the mid-skill and declining wages is primarily an urban phenomenon.
  37. Work of the Past, Work of the Future, Autor (2019)